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Evidenced Based - Prove It!

Updated: Apr 19, 2021

Providing the best information

Recommended Books:

Leadership and Self-Deception: Getting Out of the Box - The Arbinger Institute (2000

Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On It - Chris Voss (2016)

Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead - Brene Brown (2012)



Pearson, B., & Espino, D. M. (2013). Effect of hydration on the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of articular cartilage. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 227(11), 1246–1252.

Wang, Q., Yang, Y.-Y., Niu, H.-J., Zhang, W.-J., Feng, Q.-J., & Chen, W.-F. (2013). An ultrasound study of altered hydration behaviour of proteoglycan-degraded articular cartilage. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14, 289.

The Heart:

Cardiac Rehab:

Riva Gabriel, Ringh Mattias, Jonsson Martin, Svensson Leif, Herlitz Johan, Claesson Andreas, Djärv Therese, Nordberg Per, Forsberg Sune, Rubertsson Sten, Nord Anette, Rosenqvist Mårten, & Hollenberg Jacob. (2019). Survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation or chest compressions only before arrival of emergency medical services. Circulation, 139(23), 2600–2609.

Lee Jin G., Choi Yong, & López Javier. (2020). A review and evaluation of smartphone applications to support virtual cardiac rehabilitation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(11_Supplement_1), 3644–3644.

Nielsen, K. M., Zwisler, A.-D., Taylor, R. S., Svendsen, J. H., Lindschou, J., Anderson, L., Jakobsen, J. C., & Berg, S. K. (2019). Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adult patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD011828.

Franklin, B. A., Lavie, C. J., Squires, R. W., & Milani, R. V. (2013). Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness: Implications regarding patient benefit. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 88(5), 431–437.

McGregor, G., Powell, R., Kimani, P., & Underwood, M. (2020). Does contemporary exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation improve quality of life for people with coronary artery disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 10(6), e036089.

Leon Arthur S., Franklin Barry A., Costa Fernando, Balady Gary J., Berra Kathy A., Stewart Kerry J., Thompson Paul D., Williams Mark A., & Lauer Michael S. (2005). Cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Circulation, 111(3), 369–376.

Badrov Mark B., Wood Katelyn N., Lalande Sophie, Sawicki Carolyn P., Borrell Lindsay J., Barron Carly C., Vording Jennifer L., Fleischhauer Arlene, Suskin Neville, McGowan Cheri L., & Shoemaker J. Kevin. (2019). Effects of 6 months of exercise‐based cardiac rehabilitation on autonomic function and neuro‐cardiovascular stress reactivity in coronary artery disease patients. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8(17), e012257.

Anderson, L., Thompson, D. R., Oldridge, N., Zwisler, A.-D., Rees, K., Martin, N., & Taylor, R. S. (2016). Exercise‐based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1.

Yang, X., Li, Y., Ren, X., Xiong, X., Wu, L., Li, J., Wang, J., Gao, Y., Shang, H., & Xing, Y. (2017). Effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 44789.

Untitled. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2021, from

Vieira, Á., Melo, C., Machado, J., & Gabriel, J. (2018). Virtual reality exercise on a home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation program, effect on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress: A randomized controlled trial. Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology, 13(2), 112–123.

Nielsen, K. M., Zwisler, A., Taylor, R. S., Svendsen, J. H., Lindschou, J., Anderson, L., Jakobsen, J. C., & Berg, S. K. (2019). Exercise‐based cardiac rehabilitation for adult patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019(2).

Congestive Heart Failure:

Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG)

P. Kligfield and M.S. Lauer. (2006). Exercise Electrocardiogram Testing - Beyond the ST Segment. Journal of American Heart Association, 114, pp 2070-2082

Ecg wave-maven main menu. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2021, from

Sensors, C. and. (n.d.). 12-lead ecg placement guide with illustrations. Cables and Sensors. Retrieved January 16, 2021, from

Myocardial Infarction:

Abbasi, J. (2019). Cardiovascular corner: Prescription omega-3s, stroke rehab, and statins after age 75. JAMA, 322(13), 1241–1243.



Lab Values:

The Lungs:


Murias, G., Blanch, L., & Lucangelo, U. (2014). The physiology of ventilation. Respiratory Care, 59(11), 1795–1807.

Supplemental O2

Zone, R. T. (2020, April 16). Mechanical ventilation basics: A complete overview and study guide. Respiratory Therapy Zone.


“You’re really tight” doesn’t mean much. (n.d.). Www.PainScience.Com. Retrieved January 23, 2021, from

Schiaffino, S., & Reggiani, C. (2011). Fiber types in mammalian skeletal muscles. Physiological Reviews, 91(4), 1447–1531.

Ehler, E., & Gautel, M. (2008). The sarcomere and sarcomerogenesis. In N. G. Laing (Ed.), The Sarcomere and Skeletal Muscle Disease (pp. 1–14). Springer.

Zöllner, A. M., Abilez, O. J., Böl, M., & Kuhl, E. (2012). Stretching skeletal muscle: Chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis. PloS One, 7(10), e45661.

Geach, T. J., Hirst, E. M. A., & Zimmerman, L. B. (2015). Contractile activity is required for Z-disc sarcomere maturation in vivo. Genesis, 53(5), 299–307.

Cooper, G. M. (2000). Actin, myosin, and cell movement. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd Edition.

Wang, K., McCarter, R., Wright, J., Beverly, J., & Ramirez-Mitchell, R. (1991). Regulation of skeletal muscle stiffness and elasticity by titin isoforms: A test of the segmental extension model of resting tension. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88(16), 7101–7105.

Mayans, O., van der Ven, P. F. M., Wilm, M., Mues, A., Young, P., Fürst, D. O., Wilmanns, M., & Gautel, M. (1998). Structural basis for activation of the titin kinase domain during myofibrillogenesis. Nature, 395(6705), 863–869.

Beardsley, C. (2018, August 12). What determines whether a muscle fiber increases in length or diameter? Medium.

Colloca, C. J., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2005). The biomechanical and clinical significance of the lumbar erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon: A review of literature. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 28(8), 623–631.

Colloca, C. J., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2005). The biomechanical and clinical significance of the lumbar erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon: A review of literature. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 28(8), 623–631.


Elden, H. R. (1964). Hydration of connective tissue and tendon elasticity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Specialized Section on Biophysical Subjects, 79(3), 592–599.

The Vascular System:

Renal System:

Predictors of the progression of renal disease in the modification of diet in renal disease study. (1997). Kidney International, 51(6), 1908–1919.

Exercise Science:

Endurance in Athletes:

D.V. Popov and O.L. Vinogradova. (2012). Comparison of the Aerobic Performance of Leg and Arm Muscles in Cross-Country Skiers. Human Physiology, 38, pp 508-513

Exercise Physiological Benefits:

C. Fiuza-Liuces., N. Garatachea., N.A.Berger., A. Lucia. (2013) Exercise is the Real Polypill. Journal of Physiology, 28, pp 330-358


Harber, V. J., & Sutton, J. R. (1984). Endorphins and exercise. Sports Medicine, 1(2), 154–171.

Fear of Exercise

Farris, S. G., Abrantes, A. M., Bond, D. S., Stabile, L. M., & Wu, W.-C. (2019). Anxiety and fear of exercise in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation: Patient and practitioner perspectives. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 39(2), E9–E13.

Do you want to be more fit, but are afraid of exercise? (n.d.). Psychology Today. Retrieved January 23, 2021, from

Perceived Benefits of Exercise

Tergerson, J. L., & King, K. A. (2002). Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents? Journal of School Health, 72(9), 374–380.

Myers RS, Roth DL. Perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in young adults. Health Psychol. 1997 May;16(3):277-83. doi: 10.1037//0278-6133.16.3.277. PMID: 9152707

Barriers to treatment adherence in physiotherapy outpatient clinics: A systematic review. (2010). Manual Therapy, 15(3), 220–228.

Rodrigues, I. B., Armstrong, J. J., Adachi, J. D., & MacDermid, J. C. (2017). Facilitators and barriers to exercise adherence in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis: A systematic review. Osteoporosis International, 28(3), 735–745.

Horne, M., & Tierney, S. (2012). What are the barriers and facilitators to exercise and physical activity uptake and adherence among South Asian older adults: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Preventive Medicine, 55(4), 276–284.

Gjestvang, C., Abrahamsen, F., Stensrud, T., & Haakstad, L. A. H. (2020). Motives and barriers to initiation and sustained exercise adherence in a fitness club setting—A one-year follow-up study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 30(9), 1796–1805.


Risks of Exercise

Exercise Testing:

VO2 Max:

Cardiorespiratory Fitness:

MET Predictions:

Weight Loss:




Motivational Interviewing:

Physical Performance & Mental Health



Oren, O., Blankstein, R., & Bhatt, D. L. (2020). Incidental imaging findings in clinical trials. JAMA, 323(7), 603–604.

Outcome Measures:



Strength & Conditioning:

Female Athletes:



Sports Medicine:


Life Expectancy


Research, Research:


Brawner, C. A., Ehrman, J. K., Bole, S., Kerrigan, D. J., Parikh, S. S., Lewis, B. K., Gindi, R. M., Keteyian, C., Abdul-Nour, K., & Keteyian, S. J. (2021). Inverse relationship of maximal exercise capacity to hospitalization secondary to coronavirus disease 2019. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 96(1), 32–39.

Dan, J. M., Mateus, J., Kato, Y., Hastie, K. M., Yu, E. D., Faliti, C. E., Grifoni, A., Ramirez, S. I., Haupt, S., Frazier, A., Nakao, C., Rayaprolu, V., Rawlings, S. A., Peters, B., Krammer, F., Simon, V., Saphire, E. O., Smith, D. M., Weiskopf, D., … Crotty, S. (2021). Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection. Science.

Czypionka, T., Greenhalgh, T., Bassler, D., & Bryant, M. B. (2020). Masks and face coverings for the lay public. Annals of Internal Medicine.


Pain Science:

Physical Therapy

Achilles Tendon Repair:

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ALC)


Blood Pressure:

Cerebral Palsy:

Chronic Disease:

Critical Care:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):


Diabetes II:

Diabetes I:

Dry Needling (inclusive of Acupuncture):

Gattie, E., Cleland, J. A., Pandya, J., & Snodgrass, S. (2020). Dry needling adds no benefit to the treatment of neck pain: A sham-controlled randomized clinical trial with 1-year follow-up. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 51(1), 37–45.


Grip Strength:

Hip Pain:

Hip Fracture:

Informed Consent:

Low Back Pain (LBP)

Chiu, C.-C., Chuang, T.-Y., Chang, K.-H., Wu, C.-H., Lin, P.-W., & Hsu, W.-Y. (2015). The probability of spontaneous regression of lumbar herniated disc: A systematic review. Clinical Rehabilitation, 29(2), 184–195.

Flexion, bad?

Coenen, P., Gouttebarge, V., Burght, A. S. A. M. van der, Dieën, J. H. van, Frings-Dresen, M. H. W., Beek, A. J. van der, & Burdorf, A. (2014). The effect of lifting during work on low back pain: A health impact assessment based on a meta-analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71(12), 871–877.

Swain, C. T. V., Pan, F., Owen, P. J., Schmidt, H., & Belavy, D. L. (2020). No consensus on causality of spine postures or physical exposure and low back pain: A systematic review of systematic reviews. Journal of Biomechanics, 102, 109312.

van Dieën, J. H., Hoozemans, M. J., & Toussaint, H. M. (1999). Stoop or squat: A review of biomechanical studies on lifting technique. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 14(10), 685–696.

Straker, L. M. (2003). A review of research on techniques for lifting low-lying objects: 2. Evidence for a correct technique. Work (Reading, Mass.), 20(2), 83–96.

Steffens, D., Maher, C. G., Pereira, L. S. M., Stevens, M. L., Oliveira, V. C., Chapple, M., Teixeira-Salmela, L. F., & Hancock, M. J. (2016). Prevention of low back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(2), 199–208.

Sowah, D., Boyko, R., Antle, D., Miller, L., Zakhary, M., & Straube, S. (2018). Occupational interventions for the prevention of back pain: Overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Safety Research, 66, 39–59.

Edington, C., Greening, C., Kmet, N., Philipenko, N., Purves, L., Stevens, J., Lanovaz, J., & Butcher, S. (2018). The effect of set up position on emg amplitude, lumbar spine kinetics, and total force output during maximal isometric conventional-stance deadlifts. Sports, 6(3).

Vigotsky, A. D., Harper, E. N., Ryan, D. R., & Contreras, B. (2015). Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity. PeerJ, 3.

McGill, S. M., & Marshall, L. W. (2012). Kettlebell swing, snatch, and bottoms-up carry: Back and hip muscle activation, motion, and low back loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(1), 16–27.

Thoreson, O., Ekström, L., Hansson, H.-A., Todd, C., Witwit, W., Swärd Aminoff, A., Jonasson, P., & Baranto, A. (2017). The effect of repetitive flexion and extension fatigue loading on the young porcine lumbar spine, a feasibility study of MRI and histological analyses. Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, 4(1), 16.

Callaghan, J. P., & McGill, S. M. (2001). Intervertebral disc herniation: Studies on a porcine model exposed to highly repetitive flexion/extension motion with compressive force. Clinical Biomechanics, 16(1), 28–37.

Veres, S. P., Robertson, P. A., & Broom, N. D. (2010). The influence of torsion on disc herniation when combined with flexion. European Spine Journal, 19(9), 1468–1478.

Fearing, B. V., Hernandez, P. A., Setton, L. A., & Chahine, N. O. (2018). Mechanotransduction and cell biomechanics of the intervertebral disc. JOR Spine, 1(3).

Li, S., Jia, X., Duance, V. C., & Blain, E. J. (2011). The effects of cyclic tensile strain on the organisation and expression of cytoskeletal elements in bovine intervertebral disc cells: An in vitro study. European Cells & Materials, 21, 508–522.

Court, C., Colliou, O. K., Chin, J. R., Liebenberg, E., Bradford, D. S., & Lotz, J. C. (2001). The effect of static in vivo bending on the murine intervertebral disc. The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society, 1(4), 239–245.

Potvin, J. R., McGill, S. M., & Norman, R. W. (1991). Trunk muscle and lumbar ligament contributions to dynamic lifts with varying degrees of trunk flexion. Spine, 16(9), 1099–1107.

Kingma, I., Faber, G. S., & van Dieën, J. H. (2010). How to lift a box that is too large to fit between the knees. Ergonomics, 53(10), 1228–1238.

Khoddam-Khorasani, P., Arjmand, N., & Shirazi-Adl, A. (2020). Effect of changes in the lumbar posture in lifting on trunk muscle and spinal loads: A combined in vivo, musculoskeletal, and finite element model study. Journal of Biomechanics, 104, 109728.

Foss, I. S., Holme, I., & Bahr, R. (2012). The prevalence of low back pain among former elite cross-country skiers, rowers, orienteerers, and nonathletes: A 10-year cohort study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(11), 2610–2616.



Elastic Stockings:

Kinesio-Taping (KT-Tape)

Knee Sleeves:

Trigger Points:


Multiple Sclerosis:

Neck Pain:

Palmlöf, Lina, et al. “The Impact of Work Related Physical Activity and Leisure Physical Activity on the Risk and Prognosis of Neck Pain – a Population Based Cohort Study on Workers.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 17, no. 1, May 2016, p. 219. BioMed Central, doi:10.1186/s12891-016-1080-1.




Parkinson's Disease


Physical Activity Promotion:


Sleep Apnea:

Smoking - E-Cigs:

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI):

Stroke (CVA)


Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

Rotator Cuff Repair:


Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI):



10,000 Steps


Obesity & O2

Vricella, L. K., Louis, J. M., Chien, E., & Mercer, B. M. (2015). Blood volume determination in obese and normal-weight gravidas: the hydroxyethyl starch method. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 213(3), 408.e1–408.e4086.

Wood, I., De Heredia, F., Wang, B., & Trayhurn, P. (2009). Cellular hypoxia and adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity: Symposium on ‘Frontiers in adipose tissue biology’. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society,68(4), 370-377. doi:10.1017/S0029665109990206

Volume 2017 |Article ID 5350267 |

Reza Norouzirad, Pedro González-Muniesa, Asghar Ghasemi, "Hypoxia in Obesity and Diabetes: Potential Therapeutic Effects of Hyperoxia and Nitrate", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2017, Article ID 5350267, 14 pages, 2017.

Winther, S., Finer, N., Sharma, A. et al. Association of anemia with the risk of cardiovascular adverse events in overweight/obese patients. Int J Obes 38, 432–437 (2014).


Health Care Logistics

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome:


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