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Biopyschosocial Approach to Low Back Pain:

  • Schemer, L., Körfer, K., & Glombiewski, J. A. (2020). Evaluation of exposure instructions to pain: Should therapist focus on fear reduction or expectation violation? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44(3), 697–708.

  • Mescouto, K., Olson, R. E., Hodges, P. W., & Setchell, J. (2020). A critical review of the biopsychosocial model of low back pain care: Time for a new approach? Disability and Rehabilitation, 0(0), 1–15.

  • Johnson, R. E., Jones, G. T., Wiles, N. J., Chaddock, C., Potter, R. G., Roberts, C., Symmons, D. P. M., Watson, P. J., Torgerson, D. J., & Macfarlane, G. J. (2007). Active exercise, education, and cognitive behavioral therapy for persistent disabling low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Spine, 32(15), 1578–1585.

  • Houben, R. M. A., Ostelo, R. W. J. G., Vlaeyen, J. W. S., Wolters, P. M. J. C., Peters, M., & Stomp-van den Berg, S. G. M. (2005). Health care providers’ orientations towards common low back pain predict perceived harmfulness of physical activities and recommendations regarding return to normal activity. European Journal of Pain (London, England), 9(2), 173–183.

  • Clinicalkey. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2021, from!/content/playContent/1-s2.0-S2468781217301406?scrollTo=%23bib21

  • Moran, R. W., Rushworth, W. M., & Mason, J. (2017). Investigation of four self-report instruments (Fabt, tsk-hc, back-paq, hc-pairs) to measure healthcare practitioners’ attitudes and beliefs toward low back pain: Reliability, convergent validity and survey of New Zealand osteopaths and manipulative physiotherapists. Musculoskeletal Science & Practice, 32, 44–50.

  • Kaptchuk, T. J., Hemond, C. C., & Miller, F. G. (2020). Placebos in chronic pain: Evidence, theory, ethics, and use in clinical practice. BMJ, 370, m1668.

Medicinal Approach to Low Back Pain

  • Cashin, A. G., Folly, T., Bagg, M. K., Wewege, M. A., Jones, M. D., Ferraro, M. C., Leake, H. B., Rizzo, R. R. N., Schabrun, S. M., Gustin, S. M., Day, R., Williams, C. M., & McAuley, J. H. (2021). Efficacy, acceptability, and safety of muscle relaxants for adults with non-specific low back pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 374, n1446.

  • Bingel, U., Wanigasekera, V., Wiech, K., Ni Mhuircheartaigh, R., Lee, M. C., Ploner, M., & Tracey, I. (2011). The effect of treatment expectation on drug efficacy: Imaging the analgesic benefit of the opioid remifentanil. Science Translational Medicine, 3(70), 70ra14.

  • Talbot, K., Madden, V. J., Jones, S. L., & Moseley, G. L. (2019). The sensory and affective components of pain: Are they differentially modifiable dimensions or inseparable aspects of a unitary experience? A systematic review. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 123(2), e263–e272.

  • Al Saleh, A. S., Sidiqi, M. H., & Gertz, M. A. (2019). Joint pain and proteinuria. JAMA, 322(15), 1512–1513.

Natural History of Low Back Pain:

Neuroscience/Biological Approach to Low Back Pain:

Radiology/Imaging Approach to Low Back Pain:

  • McCullough, B. J., Johnson, G. R., Martin, B. I., & Jarvik, J. G. (2012). Lumbar mr imaging and reporting epidemiology: Do epidemiologic data in reports affect clinical management? Radiology, 262(3), 941–946.

  • Borenstein, David G. MD; O'Mara, James W. Jr, MD; Boden, Scott D. MD; Lauerman, William C. MD; Jacobson, Alan MD; Platenberg, Craig MD; Schellinger, Dieter MD; Wiesel, Sam W. MD The Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine to Predict Low-Back Pain in Asymptomatic Subjects, The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery: September 2001 - Volume 83 - Issue 9 - p 1306-1311

  • Suri, P., Fry, A. L., & Gellhorn, A. C. (2015). Do muscle characteristics on lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography predict future low back pain, physical function, or performance? A systematic review. PM & R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 7(12), 1269–1281.

  • Smith-Bindman, R., Kwan, M. L., Marlow, E. C., Theis, M. K., Bolch, W., Cheng, S. Y., Bowles, E. J. A., Duncan, J. R., Greenlee, R. T., Kushi, L. H., Pole, J. D., Rahm, A. K., Stout, N. K., Weinmann, S., & Miglioretti, D. L. (2019). Trends in use of medical imaging in us health care systems and in ontario, canada, 2000-2016. JAMA, 322(9), 843–856.

Rehabilitation Approach to Low Back Pain:

Orthopedic Surgery Approach to Low Back Pain:

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